Forex market participants
All operations on financial market are done via the system of special institutions: central banks, commercial banks, dealers and brokers. Every Forex participant has its own volume of deals on the currency market. For example, central banks have the biggest turnover that exceeding hundreds of millions US dollars a day. Commercial banks and dealers have smaller turnover. Daily turnover of brokers is considered to be about 25-30 millions of US dollars that makes 2% from the general volume of all Forex trading.
Central banks of countries
These banks regulate money and credit flows with instruments defined by law. The main functions of central banks are emission (issue) of money, carrying out of monetary and credit policy and national currency policy. For example if a bank carries out currency intervention it may lead to the rise or fall of the national currency rate.
These are financial intermediaries that accept deposits from legal and private persons, take advantage of investing this money, return it to depositors, close and operate bank accounts. Every country has some big commercial banks that are able to influence currency rates. In 2006 the Deutsche Bank turnover was of 19.26% from the whole Forex market turnover.
Brokers are legal or private persons that represent agents or negotiators in trading who meet buyer and seller of securities or currency together. Broker works in the name, by order and at the expense of his client and may provide some additional services. Broker gets a commission bonus for fulfilling customer's orders.
Dealers are companies or private persons that operate on the market at their own expense and in their own name, in other words they sell and buy currencies or any other assets with their own money.